SALT and PEPPER

worldcitizenshe:

Totem Pole to be finished in 4 days.

This is Baguio’s oldest tree, dating as old as 224 years and is now being carved in the image of a mother by 8 Ifugaos to give it a new life. To serve as a reminder to the people what a tree can provide to our existence, to never forget that before we happened, she has been around serving the earth we live in, down from our ancestors to the future inhabitants that we are now until 2 years ago when it died.

Amidst all these environmental issues we are faced with in the Philippines, one currently getting a mass of attention is the cutting of 182 mature trees as part of SM Baguio’s plan to create a 7-storey parking space for 1,000 vehicles. This means that eventually, 42 fully grown pine trees will be earthballed along with 43 alnus trees and 97 pine tree saplings will be cut by the developer. And knowing the pine tree’s sensitivity to up-rooting, all this move to expand a mall will only kill the trees despite their planned “green architecture”.

As of now talks of legislative matters and public education are ongoing to fight against this and the concerned people of the city are banking on all the help they can get from anyone who supports the idea of preserving the existence of these trees and a city that is now being threatened of heavier pollution and eventual lack of protection against natural disasters.

Since last week, environmental advocates have gathered 3,000 signatures and need more to help counter-act this problem and has produced several protests, one tomorrow, Jan 20 on Session Road - including artists and students.

Hoping this post serves as an image of urgency to us all. We’re currently mobilizing a movement that could extend support not just to Baguio but to other patches of land in the Philippines that could be in danger in the wrong hands.


okeii..okeii..im freakin’ in love..so what?? wadda hell…i hate such smiles and winks!!! wheeeewww




Western black rhino delcared extinct
No wild black rhinos remain in West Africa, according to the latest global assessment of threatened species.
The Red List, drawn up by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), has declared the subspecies extinct.
A subspecies of white rhino in central Africa is also listed as possibly extinct, the organisation says.
The annual update of the Red List now records more threatened species than ever before.
The IUCN reports that despite conservation efforts, 25% of the world’s mammals are at risk of extinction. As part of its latest work it has reassessed several rhinoceros groups.
Poaching vulnerability
As well as declaring the western black rhino (Diceros bicornis longipes) extinct, it records the northern white rhino (Ceratotherium simum cottoni), a subspecies in central Africa, as being on the brink of extinction.
The last Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) outside Java is also believed to have disappeared.
Overall numbers of black and white rhinos have been rising, but some subspecies have been particularly vulnerable to poaching by criminal gangs who want to trade the animals’ valuable horns.
Simon Stuart, chair of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, told BBC News: “They had the misfortune of occurring in places where we simply weren’t able to get the necessary security in place.
“You’ve got to imagine an animal walking around with a gold horn; that’s what you’re looking at, that’s the value and that’s why you need incredibly high security.”
That will help protect endangered species including Tarzan’s chameleon (Calumma tarzan) and the limbless skink (Paracontias fasika).
Among the success stories identified in the latest annual update is the reintroduction of the Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus). Listed extinct in the wild in 1996, it was brought back after a captive breeding programme and the wild population is now thought to exceed 300.
Among the partner organisations involved in compiling the research for the list is the Zoological Society of London (ZSL).
ZSL’s Dr Monika Boehm said: “This Red List update very much shows us a mixed picture of what’s happening to the world’s species. There’s some good news and some bad news.
“Unfortunately, the overall trend is still a decline in biodiversity. We still haven’t achieved our conservation potential.”
Another focus for this year’s list is Madagascar and its reptiles. The report found that 40% of terrestrial reptiles are threatened. But it also says that new areas have been designated for conservation.
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Western black rhino delcared extinct

No wild black rhinos remain in West Africa, according to the latest global assessment of threatened species.

The Red List, drawn up by the International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN), has declared the subspecies extinct.

A subspecies of white rhino in central Africa is also listed as possibly extinct, the organisation says.

The annual update of the Red List now records more threatened species than ever before.

The IUCN reports that despite conservation efforts, 25% of the world’s mammals are at risk of extinction. As part of its latest work it has reassessed several rhinoceros groups.

Poaching vulnerability

As well as declaring the western black rhino (Diceros bicornis longipes) extinct, it records the northern white rhino (Ceratotherium simum cottoni), a subspecies in central Africa, as being on the brink of extinction.

The last Javan rhino (Rhinoceros sondaicus) outside Java is also believed to have disappeared.

Overall numbers of black and white rhinos have been rising, but some subspecies have been particularly vulnerable to poaching by criminal gangs who want to trade the animals’ valuable horns.

Simon Stuart, chair of the IUCN Species Survival Commission, told BBC News: “They had the misfortune of occurring in places where we simply weren’t able to get the necessary security in place.

“You’ve got to imagine an animal walking around with a gold horn; that’s what you’re looking at, that’s the value and that’s why you need incredibly high security.”

That will help protect endangered species including Tarzan’s chameleon (Calumma tarzan) and the limbless skink (Paracontias fasika).

Among the success stories identified in the latest annual update is the reintroduction of the Przewalski’s horse (Equus ferus). Listed extinct in the wild in 1996, it was brought back after a captive breeding programme and the wild population is now thought to exceed 300.

Among the partner organisations involved in compiling the research for the list is the Zoological Society of London (ZSL).

ZSL’s Dr Monika Boehm said: “This Red List update very much shows us a mixed picture of what’s happening to the world’s species. There’s some good news and some bad news.

“Unfortunately, the overall trend is still a decline in biodiversity. We still haven’t achieved our conservation potential.”

Another focus for this year’s list is Madagascar and its reptiles. The report found that 40% of terrestrial reptiles are threatened. But it also says that new areas have been designated for conservation.




The Earliest example of Mathematics in the world found in Africa dated between 35,000-20,000 years old.
Two artifacts found in Africa represent the earliest and oldest examples of mathematical structure in human History.  They are the Lebombo bone and the Ishango bone. The first being the Lebombo Bone found during the early 1970’s in the Lebombo Mountains between South Africa and Swaziland Dated back to 35,000 years. The second oldest is the Ishango bone, a bone tool handle made from the fibula of a baboon, found in 1958 in Congo which is dated back to at least 20,000 years.
The Ishango bone
 The Ishango bone  Has an ‘arrangement of the notches engraved on the handle of the bone, and the numbers in each group, these numbers are clearly not casual. Analysis of their numerological properties led people to conclude that the artifact is not a simple tally stick, but a kind of calculator based on special number systems. Each of the groupings in the left and right columns contains an odd number of notches (9, 11, 13, 17, 19, and 21), while the numbers contained in the first column  are precisely the four prime numbers between 10 and 20. From facts such as these it is thought that the groupings represent numbers and the whole design represents a system of reckoning based upon counting by digits. It has also thought that the bone could have been used for time reckoning, following the observable course of the moon over a period of about 5½ synodic (lunar phase cycle) months, based on a period of a double lunation of 59–60 days.
One theory has been proposed stating the question “who but a woman keeping track of her cycles would need a lunar calendar?” and concludes that “women may have been undoubtedly the first mathematicians!”. since keeping track of menstrual cycles requires a lunar calendar.
The Lebombo bone 
The Lebombo bone was discovered much later and  is a small piece of the fibula of baboon bone marked with 29 clearly defined notches. It  ”resembles calendar sticks still in use today by Bushmen clans in Namibia” .
References:
ICOMOS–IAU (2011)“Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the context of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention: A Thematic Study”{Astronomy and World Heritage }  [online] Available from: http://www.astronomicalheritage.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=28&Itemid=33 
Weblinks:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishango_bone
http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/AMU/amu_chma_09.html#2
http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/Ancient-Africa/ishango.html
http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/africa/science/numbers.htm
http://www.wcu.edu/ceap/houghton/edelcompeduc/ch1/computing_tools_timeline.html


The Earliest example of Mathematics in the world found in Africa dated between 35,000-20,000 years old.
Two artifacts found in Africa represent the earliest and oldest examples of mathematical structure in human History.  They are the Lebombo bone and the Ishango bone. The first being the Lebombo Bone found during the early 1970’s in the Lebombo Mountains between South Africa and Swaziland Dated back to 35,000 years. The second oldest is the Ishango bone, a bone tool handle made from the fibula of a baboon, found in 1958 in Congo which is dated back to at least 20,000 years.
The Ishango bone
 The Ishango bone  Has an ‘arrangement of the notches engraved on the handle of the bone, and the numbers in each group, these numbers are clearly not casual. Analysis of their numerological properties led people to conclude that the artifact is not a simple tally stick, but a kind of calculator based on special number systems. Each of the groupings in the left and right columns contains an odd number of notches (9, 11, 13, 17, 19, and 21), while the numbers contained in the first column  are precisely the four prime numbers between 10 and 20. From facts such as these it is thought that the groupings represent numbers and the whole design represents a system of reckoning based upon counting by digits. It has also thought that the bone could have been used for time reckoning, following the observable course of the moon over a period of about 5½ synodic (lunar phase cycle) months, based on a period of a double lunation of 59–60 days.
One theory has been proposed stating the question “who but a woman keeping track of her cycles would need a lunar calendar?” and concludes that “women may have been undoubtedly the first mathematicians!”. since keeping track of menstrual cycles requires a lunar calendar.
The Lebombo bone 
The Lebombo bone was discovered much later and  is a small piece of the fibula of baboon bone marked with 29 clearly defined notches. It  ”resembles calendar sticks still in use today by Bushmen clans in Namibia” .
References:
ICOMOS–IAU (2011)“Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the context of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention: A Thematic Study”{Astronomy and World Heritage }  [online] Available from: http://www.astronomicalheritage.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=28&Itemid=33 
Weblinks:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishango_bone
http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/AMU/amu_chma_09.html#2
http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/Ancient-Africa/ishango.html
http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/africa/science/numbers.htm
http://www.wcu.edu/ceap/houghton/edelcompeduc/ch1/computing_tools_timeline.html


The Earliest example of Mathematics in the world found in Africa dated between 35,000-20,000 years old.
Two artifacts found in Africa represent the earliest and oldest examples of mathematical structure in human History.  They are the Lebombo bone and the Ishango bone. The first being the Lebombo Bone found during the early 1970’s in the Lebombo Mountains between South Africa and Swaziland Dated back to 35,000 years. The second oldest is the Ishango bone, a bone tool handle made from the fibula of a baboon, found in 1958 in Congo which is dated back to at least 20,000 years.
The Ishango bone
 The Ishango bone  Has an ‘arrangement of the notches engraved on the handle of the bone, and the numbers in each group, these numbers are clearly not casual. Analysis of their numerological properties led people to conclude that the artifact is not a simple tally stick, but a kind of calculator based on special number systems. Each of the groupings in the left and right columns contains an odd number of notches (9, 11, 13, 17, 19, and 21), while the numbers contained in the first column  are precisely the four prime numbers between 10 and 20. From facts such as these it is thought that the groupings represent numbers and the whole design represents a system of reckoning based upon counting by digits. It has also thought that the bone could have been used for time reckoning, following the observable course of the moon over a period of about 5½ synodic (lunar phase cycle) months, based on a period of a double lunation of 59–60 days.
One theory has been proposed stating the question “who but a woman keeping track of her cycles would need a lunar calendar?” and concludes that “women may have been undoubtedly the first mathematicians!”. since keeping track of menstrual cycles requires a lunar calendar.
The Lebombo bone 
The Lebombo bone was discovered much later and  is a small piece of the fibula of baboon bone marked with 29 clearly defined notches. It  ”resembles calendar sticks still in use today by Bushmen clans in Namibia” .
References:
ICOMOS–IAU (2011)“Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the context of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention: A Thematic Study”{Astronomy and World Heritage }  [online] Available from: http://www.astronomicalheritage.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=28&Itemid=33 
Weblinks:
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishango_bone
http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/AMU/amu_chma_09.html#2
http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/Ancient-Africa/ishango.html
http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/africa/science/numbers.htm
http://www.wcu.edu/ceap/houghton/edelcompeduc/ch1/computing_tools_timeline.html

The Earliest example of Mathematics in the world found in Africa dated between 35,000-20,000 years old.

Two artifacts found in Africa represent the earliest and oldest examples of mathematical structure in human History. They are the Lebombo bone and the Ishango bone. The first being the Lebombo Bone found during the early 1970’s in the Lebombo Mountains between South Africa and Swaziland Dated back to 35,000 years. The second oldest is the Ishango bone, a bone tool handle made from the fibula of a baboon, found in 1958 in Congo which is dated back to at least 20,000 years.

The Ishango bone

 The Ishango bone  Has an ‘arrangement of the notches engraved on the handle of the bone, and the numbers in each group, these numbers are clearly not casual. Analysis of their numerological properties led people to conclude that the artifact is not a simple tally stick, but a kind of calculator based on special number systems. Each of the groupings in the left and right columns contains an odd number of notches (9, 11, 13, 17, 19, and 21), while the numbers contained in the first column are precisely the four prime numbers between 10 and 20. From facts such as these it is thought that the groupings represent numbers and the whole design represents a system of reckoning based upon counting by digits. It has also thought that the bone could have been used for time reckoning, following the observable course of the moon over a period of about 5½ synodic (lunar phase cycle) months, based on a period of a double lunation of 59–60 days.

One theory has been proposed stating the question “who but a woman keeping track of her cycles would need a lunar calendar?” and concludes that “women may have been undoubtedly the first mathematicians!”. since keeping track of menstrual cycles requires a lunar calendar.

The Lebombo bone

The Lebombo bone was discovered much later and is a small piece of the fibula of baboon bone marked with 29 clearly defined notches. It  ”resembles calendar sticks still in use today by Bushmen clans in Namibia” .

References:

ICOMOS–IAU (2011)“Heritage Sites of Astronomy and Archaeoastronomy in the context of the UNESCO World Heritage Convention: A Thematic Study”{Astronomy and World Heritage }  [online] Available from: http://www.astronomicalheritage.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=28&Itemid=33 

Weblinks:

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Ishango_bone

http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/AMU/amu_chma_09.html#2

http://www.math.buffalo.edu/mad/Ancient-Africa/ishango.html

http://www.historyforkids.org/learn/africa/science/numbers.htm

http://www.wcu.edu/ceap/houghton/edelcompeduc/ch1/computing_tools_timeline.html


fyeahafrica:

Zulu women wearing their isicholos/inkehlis - a wide hat decorated with beads (ubuhlalu) - worn by married Zulu women during special occasions and ceremonies. 
It is made out of dried grass. intertwined with red cotton and human hair and covered with red ochre, which refers to the living cow and also evokes the blood of the earth. In areas such as Eshowe the headdresses are made with lots of beadwork.
As a signifier of respect for the new husband and the in-law family, a woven fibre beaded headband (Umqwazi) is added to the base of the headdress. In some areas, the ochre colour headdress is adorned with elaborately stylized beadwork decorations and studs.
The width of the isiholo is about 42 cm. The word Inkehli comes from the word Khehla meaning “to be cut”. It conveys the fact that the woman is no longer among the unmarried women - the “amaghikiza”; she belongs to the new stage of life, the married woman - the “umfazi”.
Previously, women never removed the headdress from their head once they got married, even when sleeping. Thus the headdress played an important part as a pillow a night.
Traditionally, the Zulu woman commissioned two headdresses before her marriage - one for herself and one for her future husband. These could be identical in design; or a woman might choose to acknowledge her husband’s status by giving him a more intricately designed headdress than her own. The man sometimes used it as stool during the day.
[source]fyeahafrica:

Zulu women wearing their isicholos/inkehlis - a wide hat decorated with beads (ubuhlalu) - worn by married Zulu women during special occasions and ceremonies. 
It is made out of dried grass. intertwined with red cotton and human hair and covered with red ochre, which refers to the living cow and also evokes the blood of the earth. In areas such as Eshowe the headdresses are made with lots of beadwork.
As a signifier of respect for the new husband and the in-law family, a woven fibre beaded headband (Umqwazi) is added to the base of the headdress. In some areas, the ochre colour headdress is adorned with elaborately stylized beadwork decorations and studs.
The width of the isiholo is about 42 cm. The word Inkehli comes from the word Khehla meaning “to be cut”. It conveys the fact that the woman is no longer among the unmarried women - the “amaghikiza”; she belongs to the new stage of life, the married woman - the “umfazi”.
Previously, women never removed the headdress from their head once they got married, even when sleeping. Thus the headdress played an important part as a pillow a night.
Traditionally, the Zulu woman commissioned two headdresses before her marriage - one for herself and one for her future husband. These could be identical in design; or a woman might choose to acknowledge her husband’s status by giving him a more intricately designed headdress than her own. The man sometimes used it as stool during the day.
[source]fyeahafrica:

Zulu women wearing their isicholos/inkehlis - a wide hat decorated with beads (ubuhlalu) - worn by married Zulu women during special occasions and ceremonies. 
It is made out of dried grass. intertwined with red cotton and human hair and covered with red ochre, which refers to the living cow and also evokes the blood of the earth. In areas such as Eshowe the headdresses are made with lots of beadwork.
As a signifier of respect for the new husband and the in-law family, a woven fibre beaded headband (Umqwazi) is added to the base of the headdress. In some areas, the ochre colour headdress is adorned with elaborately stylized beadwork decorations and studs.
The width of the isiholo is about 42 cm. The word Inkehli comes from the word Khehla meaning “to be cut”. It conveys the fact that the woman is no longer among the unmarried women - the “amaghikiza”; she belongs to the new stage of life, the married woman - the “umfazi”.
Previously, women never removed the headdress from their head once they got married, even when sleeping. Thus the headdress played an important part as a pillow a night.
Traditionally, the Zulu woman commissioned two headdresses before her marriage - one for herself and one for her future husband. These could be identical in design; or a woman might choose to acknowledge her husband’s status by giving him a more intricately designed headdress than her own. The man sometimes used it as stool during the day.
[source]fyeahafrica:

Zulu women wearing their isicholos/inkehlis - a wide hat decorated with beads (ubuhlalu) - worn by married Zulu women during special occasions and ceremonies. 
It is made out of dried grass. intertwined with red cotton and human hair and covered with red ochre, which refers to the living cow and also evokes the blood of the earth. In areas such as Eshowe the headdresses are made with lots of beadwork.
As a signifier of respect for the new husband and the in-law family, a woven fibre beaded headband (Umqwazi) is added to the base of the headdress. In some areas, the ochre colour headdress is adorned with elaborately stylized beadwork decorations and studs.
The width of the isiholo is about 42 cm. The word Inkehli comes from the word Khehla meaning “to be cut”. It conveys the fact that the woman is no longer among the unmarried women - the “amaghikiza”; she belongs to the new stage of life, the married woman - the “umfazi”.
Previously, women never removed the headdress from their head once they got married, even when sleeping. Thus the headdress played an important part as a pillow a night.
Traditionally, the Zulu woman commissioned two headdresses before her marriage - one for herself and one for her future husband. These could be identical in design; or a woman might choose to acknowledge her husband’s status by giving him a more intricately designed headdress than her own. The man sometimes used it as stool during the day.
[source]

fyeahafrica:

Zulu women wearing their isicholos/inkehlis - a wide hat decorated with beads (ubuhlalu) - worn by married Zulu women during special occasions and ceremonies. 

It is made out of dried grass. intertwined with red cotton and human hair and covered with red ochre, which refers to the living cow and also evokes the blood of the earth. In areas such as Eshowe the headdresses are made with lots of beadwork.

As a signifier of respect for the new husband and the in-law family, a woven fibre beaded headband (Umqwazi) is added to the base of the headdress. In some areas, the ochre colour headdress is adorned with elaborately stylized beadwork decorations and studs.

The width of the isiholo is about 42 cm. The word Inkehli comes from the word Khehla meaning “to be cut”. It conveys the fact that the woman is no longer among the unmarried women - the “amaghikiza”; she belongs to the new stage of life, the married woman - the “umfazi”.

Previously, women never removed the headdress from their head once they got married, even when sleeping. Thus the headdress played an important part as a pillow a night.

Traditionally, the Zulu woman commissioned two headdresses before her marriage - one for herself and one for her future husband. These could be identical in design; or a woman might choose to acknowledge her husband’s status by giving him a more intricately designed headdress than her own. The man sometimes used it as stool during the day.

[source]


Interview with Asari Sobukwe on the legacy of Muammar Qaddafi →


The following interview was conducted via email with Asari Sobukwe, a well-known Pan-African socialist and organiser with the All-African People’s Revolutionary Party and AJAMU.

Given that relations between Libya and the west seemed to be getting better over the last decade or so, why do you think NATO went to war against Libya?

That was just a smoke screen. NATO and the West have permanent interests but not permanent friends. They wanted access to the oil revenues in Libya and a friendlier leadership towards racist and zionist Israel. The West tricked the Libyan government (Socialist Jamahiriya) under Qaddafi, making him believe that they would leave his revolution alone if he worked with them and gave some contracts to western nations. However, the Libyan Socialist Jamahiriya continued to finance the integration of the African continent; finance the first African satallite system; advocate that oil should be sold in another currency; financed the African Monetary Bank – all this could not be tolerated by the West.

Qaddafi tends to be looked upon favourably within Africa; why is that?

Because of his commitment to the unification of the African continent. He has been calling on African governments to implement Nkrumah’s vision for a liberated continent, and his government has done a lot to finance projects of African unity and empowerment.

What was Gaddafi’s record like in terms of helping to improve the living standards of the Libyan people?

Libya was one of the poorest countries in the world in 1969. It is now 53rd in human development index, the highest in Africa. Education is universal, health is free, housing is provided for all and subsidised, petrol is cheap and infrastructure was excellent until destroyed by 20,000+ NATO bombs!

If Gaddafi was popular within Libya, why was there an uprising against him?

There are always those who oppose any leaders or President. Obama’s standing is at an all time low; Sarkozy is very unpopular and Cameron had to form a coalition to get the PM seat. If NATO supported the youth and all the disgruntled (those uprising in Tottenham and across Britain; the anti-capitalist protesters; the students; the pensioners and public sector workers), then maybe Britain would have a major rebel uprising. 

The mainstream press talks about Qaddafi as a dictator. Is that a fair characterisation? Did the Libyan Jamahiriya have any elements of democracy?

Yes, they had the Peoples Assemblies across the country. In fact Qaddafi was the figure head rather then the President.

Is it true that Qaddafi considered himself the ‘king of kings’ of Africa? Was his Pan-Africanism tainted by personal ambition?

No this is nonsense. How can Qaddafi have ruled over 54 African nations? Where is the evidence for this? He was motivated by a vision to unite Africa. He offered to give up Libyan sovereignty for a united Africa. This was also offered before to Egypt, when he first came to power.

Did Qaddafi perpetrate massacres against innocent Libyans? What about Abu Salim prison?

I understand there were contradictions on human rights but this need investigating. Allegations of human rights abuses could have been investigated by the African Union. NATO and the west cannot be judge and jury - they aren’t in a position to lecture anyone on human rights. What about the mass killings of the British and US Governments of African and other people. What about the march tomorrow (Sat 29th Oct) on deaths in police custody, which largely affect the African/Caribbean community in Britain? What about all the human rights of us in the UK? What about the poor housing; poor education; high unemployment and incarceration in prisons and mental institutions. We have a long list of human rights violations in Britain, France and the US.

In fact the recent UN report on human rights in Libya praised the government for its work on improving human rights. 

How do you think Qaddafi will be remembered within Africa and among the diaspora?

He will be remembered as a serious revolutionary Pan-Africanist, socialist and internationalist. he supported the various struggles on the African continent including the ANC, for which Mandela personally thanked him. He also supported the Palestinians, the Irish Republican struggle and many others. He threw out the British, French and US military bases in Libya; he nationalised the oil and used it to develop the country and support African development and integration.

He will be remembered as a true hero of the African liberation struggle, for advancing a country under socialism and a fighter for injustice worldwide.